By Aurangzeb Soharwardi
Since the world has come into being , Humans have adopted many ways to manage their activities and still are managing organizations, businesses and other important tasks. Management is almost as old as the humanity. Whether it is war or business , some community organization or family , Management has the most important role every where. It evolved as the time progressed and saw many changes. Humans molded and amended its frame work and functions as per their needs .Its simplest modern definition is “Creating and Maintaining an environment in which humans working in groups achieve collective objectives”.
In modern times basic principles emerged as Planning, Organizing, staffing, leading and controlling . . However, innovations such as the spread of Arabic numerals (5th to 15th centuries) and the codification of double-entry book-keeping (1494) provided tools for management assessment, planning and control. , Chinese general Sun Tzu in his 6th-century BC work The Art of War recommends (when re-phrased in modern terminology) being aware of and acting on strengths and weaknesses of both a manager’s organization and a foe’. Plato described job specialization in 350 BC, and Alfarabi listed several leadership traits in AD 900. Other examples include the Indian Arthashastra by Chanakya (written around 300 BC), and The Prince by Italian author Niccolò Machiavelli (c. 1515). Classical economists such as Adam Smith (1723–1790) and John Stuart Mill (1806–1873) provided a theoretical background to resource allocation, production (economics), and pricing issues. About the same time, innovators like Eli Whitney (1765–1825), James Watt (1736–1819), and Matthew Boulton (1728–1809) developed elements of technical production such as standardization, quality-control procedures, cost-accounting, interchangeability of parts, and work-planning. Many of these aspects of management existed in the pre-1861 slave-based sector of the US economy. In 1909, Taylor published “The Principles of Scientific Management.” In this, he proposed that by optimizing and simplifying jobs, productivity would increase. The scientific management approach propounded by F.W. Taylor is based upon the following four principles: Science, Not Rule of Thumb: Harmony, Not Discord: Cooperation, Not Individualism: Development of Each and Every Person to His / Her Greatest Efficiency and Prosperity: In 1916, two years before Henry Fayol published his “14 Principles of Management” in the book “Administration Industrielle et Générale.” Division of Work – When employees are specialized, output can increase because they become increasingly skilled and efficient. Authority – Managers must have the authority to give orders, but they must also keep in mind that with authority comes responsibility. Discipline – Discipline must be upheld in organizations, but methods for doing so can vary. Unity of Command – Employees should have only one direct supervisor. Unity of Direction – Teams with the same objective should be working under the direction of one manager, using one plan. This will ensure that action is properly coordinated. Subordination of Individual Interests to the General Interest – The interests of one employee should not be allowed to become more important than those of the group. This includes managers. Remuneration – Employee satisfaction depends on fair remuneration for everyone. This includes financial and non-financial compensation. · Centralization – This principle refers to how close employees are to the decision-making process. It is important to aim for an appropriate balance. · Scalar Chain – Employees should be aware of where they stand in the organization’s hierarchy, or chain of command. · Order – The workplace facilities must be clean, tidy and safe for employees. Everything should have its place. · Equity – Managers should be fair to staff at all times, both maintaining discipline as necessary and acting with kindness where appropriate. · Stability of Tenure of Personnel – Managers should strive to minimize employee turnover. Personnel planning should be a priority. · Initiative – Employees should be given the necessary level of freedom to create and carry out plans. · Esprit de Corps – Organizations should strive to promote team spirit and unity.
Fayol’s also gave his six primary functions of management, which go hand in hand with the Principles, are as follows: Forecasting ., Planning , Organizing. , Commanding ,Coordinating. Controlling. Management styles Autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire. Autocratic management styles are Authoritative management style , Persuasive management style , Paternalistic management style Democratic management styles are Consultative management style , Participative management style , Collaborative management style , Transformational management style , Coaching management style Laissez-faire management styles , Delegative management style , Visionary management style Conflict management styles are Accommodating , Avoiding , Compromising , Competing , Collaboration. Focused on Productivity, efficiency, effectiveness, performance, Objectives Input , process, (Technology) Out put. As one consequence, workplace democracy (sometimes referred to as Workers’ self-management) has become both more common and more advocated, in some places distributing all management functions among workers, each of whom takes on a portion of the work .
MINTZ BERGs Classification of managerial roles:
INTERPERSONAL: FIGURE HEAD , LEADER , LIAISON
INFORMATIONAL: MONITOR , DISSEMINATOR
DECISION ROLE: ENTREPRIAL , DISTURBANCE HANDLER , RESOURCE ALLOCATOR
Then there are Theories of Management which are :1)Systems Theory (Entropy — The tendency for a system to run down and die (a thing to be avoided in business) Synergy — Working together, the parts can produce something greater than those same parts could produce on their own , Subsystem — The whole (your business) is built on subsystems, which themselves are built on yet more subsystems. 2) Administrative Management (Henry Fayol), 3) Bureaucratic Management( Max Webber , Clear division of labor , Separation of the owner’s personal and organizational assets , Hierarchical chain of command , Accurate record keeping , Hiring and promotion based on qualifications and performance, not personal relationships , Consistent regulations, 4) Scientific Management-Fredrick Taylor , Productivity, Efficiency, 5) Theories X And Y, Douglas McGregor(1960), 6) Human Relations Theory (Behavioral Management –Elton Mayo , 7) Classical Management-Profit maximization ,Labor specialization , Centralized leadership ,Streamlined operations ,Emphasis on productivity ,Single-person or select-few decision making ,Priority to the bottom line managers can use in the 21st century. They include:Clear managerial structure , Division of labor , Clear definition of employee roles ,8) Contingency Management-Fred Fiedler and others 1950s-1960s, three general variables determine business management and structure. They are: The size of the organization ,The technology employed ,The leadership at all levels of the business . 9) Modern Management ,Peter Drucker and Others, 10) Quantitative Management, 11) Organizations As Learning Systems or Holistic Management . The theory of constraints (TOC) is a management paradigm that views any manageable system as being limited in achieving more of its goals by a very small number of constraints. There is always at least one constraint, and TOC uses a focusing process to identify the constraint and restructure the rest of the organization around it. TOC adopts the common idiom “a chain is no stronger than its weakest link”. This means that processes, organizations, etc., are vulnerable because the weakest person or part can always damage or break them or at least adversely affect the outcome.
The Harvard Business School offered the first Master of Business Administration degree (MBA) in 1921. Walter Scott (1869–1955) and J. Mooney applied the principles of psychology to management. Max Weber (1864–1920), who saw what he called the “administrator” as bureaucrat,. H. Dodge, Ronald Fisher (1890–1962), and Thornton C. Fry introduced statistical techniques into management-studies . Peter Drucker’s innovative thinking transformed management theory into a considerable discipline amongst sociologists, with the practice of business ethics and morals high up on his priorities. He propagated Decentralization , MBO, SMART method and Knowledge worker (In his 1959 book, ‘The Landmarks of Tomorrow’, Drucker suggested “the most valuable asset of a 21st-century institution, whether business or non-business, will be its knowledge workers and their productivity”). Ally MacDonald in January 2020 highlighted some modern principles encapsulating the organizations like , Build Agile, Collaborative Cultures , Take Climate Change Seriously , Effectively Embrace Emotions at Work , Understand and Prepare for AI’s Impact , Invest In Your Customers , Take a Learning Approach to Our Differences , Strike a Balance Between Human and Machine Capital , Become a Hybrid Extended Learning Organization .
The following concepts are directly associated with Management and highlight various dimensions such as Lean Management , Agile Management ,Innovative Management ,Strategic Management ,Contingency Management, collaboration or collaborative management . Nonlinear management (NLM), A superset of management techniques and strategies that allows order to emerge by giving organizations the space to self-organize, evolve and adapt, encompassing Agile, Evolutionary and Lean approaches, as well as many others. Evidence-based management (EBMgt) is an emerging movement to explicitly use the current, best evidence in management and decision-making. It is part of the larger movement towards evidence-based practices. Interim management is the temporary provision of management resources and skills. Interim management can be seen as the short-term assignment of a proven heavyweight interim executive manager to manage a period of transition, crisis or change within an organization. In this situation, a permanent role may be unnecessary or impossible to find on short notice. Additionally, there may be nobody internally who is suitable for, or available to take up, the position in question , Integration Management .
In management besides performing management functions one has to handle crises, human relations Communication and decision making articulately. These challenges require combination of ART SCIENCE and CRAFT or in HRM terms , KNOWLEDGE SKILLS/ABILITIES and ATTITUDE handling leading to work or performance behavior BEHAVIOR . It is an articulative interplay of Leadership , Administration ,Supervision and Management skills. With changing times and introduction of globalization with huge influx of technology and changing mindset of people , Management is becoming more and more challenging and skillful art. Especially management in the new cyber world is taking its toll and compelling managers at all levels to develop customized managerial skills in order to manage the world in modern times. There are various levels of management like Senior level or C Suit ,Middle level ,Junior level ,supervisors and team leaders which have respective context , domain and activities to perform.