By Aurangzeb Soharwardi
Our beloved country Pakistan is blessed ,abundantly, with rich energy resources by the nature but today is confronted with an energy deficit which, if not addressed timely and appropriately can very seriously hamper the pursuit of sustained economic growth. We face energy shortages which unfortunately co-exist with wasteful energy use in various sectors. The potential and role of energy conservation as a cost-effective energy supply option can no longer be ignored . If we do not play our critical roles as individual citizens, government policy and decision makers and keep on wasting energy resources without being energy efficient then time is very nearby, when the scarcity of such an asset can lead to a disaster. At government level there is a dire need to make flawless pragmatic policies and ensure effective implementation for exploring new energy resources along with making strategic endeavor s to conserve the existing ones. At individual levels, every Pakistani has to understand the heavy price to be paid in case of energy shortage and there fore make earnest efforts in stopping the wastage of electricity, gas, POLs and natural drinking water. Presently we have Major Oil & Gas Fields, Tand ,Toot ,Uch ,Alam ,Bobi ,Chanda ,Chak nauraang,Dhodak,Dakhni, Fimkaasa, Nand pur, Pasakhi, Qadir pur ,Thora ,Rajan etc. During financial year 2007-08 five oil, gas / condensate discoveries were made which added 3.27 million barrels of Oil and 122 Bcf of Gas. Net oil and gas production remained 43,434 BPD and 976 MMCFD respectively. 31 new wells including 13 Exploratory / Appraisal and 18 Development wells were scudded. An expansion in the production capacities of the leading auto manufacturing companies in Pakistan has contributed to the growth of this sector, which was over 50% in 2005. The sharp increase in the demand of cars compelled auto assemblers to increase their capacities. Vehicle manufacturers directly employ over 192,000 people with a total investment of over US$1.5-billion. The auto policy of Pakistan envisages an investment of US$3.9-billion in the next five years, which will make the target of 0.5 million cars per annum achievable. We also have about 194 billion ton of coal deposits in Various parts of Sindh ,especially in Thar . The consumption of petroleum product (POL) has recorded an increase of 8.4 percent to 15.31 million during July 2007 to April 2008 compared to 14.12 million tons in the corresponding period of last year mainly due to increasing demand for power, industrial consumption and transport sector. Due to increased use of automobiles a sharp rise in consumption of petroleum goods was witnessed. According to a report, major rise was seen in the consumption of high speed diesel and gasoline, which grew by 14.5 percent and 30.2 percent respectively. Pakistan is basically an agricultural country. SNGPL, one of the two gas providing companies, has 3,190,181 consumers comprising Commercial, Domestic, General Industry, Fertilizer, and Power & Cement Sectors. Sales to these consumers were 598,270* MMCF worth Rs. 123,460* million during Jul 07 – Jun 08. Annual gas sale for year 2007-2008 was 597,913 MMCF worth Rs. 124,155 million. The other company, SSGCL transmission system extends from Sui in Balochistan to Karachi in Sindh comprising over 3,200 KM of high pressure pipeline ranging from 12 – 24″ in diameter. The distribution activities covering over 1200 towns in the Sindh and Balochistan are organized through its regional offices. An average of about 357,129 million cubic feet (MMCFD) gas was sold in 2006-2007 to over 1.9 million industrial, commercial and domestic consumers in these regions through a distribution network of over 29,832 Km. The company also owns and operates the only gas meter manufacturing plant in the country, having an annual production capacity of over 550,150 meters Agriculture sector is one of the major consumers of national energy resources, the farm tractors and agricultural tubewells using a substantial amount of High Speed Diesel and electricity. PEPCO/ WAPDA have the responsibility to manage water resources and generate and distribute electricity in the country. As far as hydel electricity generation is concerned, The total capacity of 13 No. Hydel Stations as of today is 6443.56 ~ 6444 MW which is 37.10% of total installed generation capacity of WAPDA. During 2007~2008, aggregate energy sharing during the year was 33.32%. The Hydel Generation Capacity was reduced from 6463.16 MW to 6443.56 MW due to decommissioning of Jabban Hydel Power Station after a fire incident in November, 2006. Wapda’s Thermal Power Generation is mainly based on generation of power from its Steam Turbo-Generators, Gas Turbines (simple as well as Combined Cycle Units) installed at different Power Stations located in Sindh, Punjab and Balochistan provinces. Indigenous Gas & Coal is the main fuel whereas Furnace oil and HSD are also used as alternative fuel. The total installed capacity is 4664 MW.1292 MW (Net 1200 MW) HUB Power Project the biggest power plant in the private sector contracted in 1992 started commercial operations in March 1997. WAPDA also privatized its 1638 MW (Net 1342 MW) Gas Turbine Power Station, Kot Addu in June 1996 by incorporating it under the name of KAPCO and selling its 36% shares to International Power of UK. Many IPPs and RPPs are fully functional to generate maximum electricity for bridging supply and demand gap.Now ,by the grace of Almighty Allah With in a span of few months additional power of almost 3500 MW will be added in the PEPCO distribution system. Cabinet has also recently approved 2500 MW Rental power plants to meet the energy deficit. Total of over 18 million electricity consumers , consume about 18000 MW of electricity. The over all electricity consumption is for Domestic consumers 44%, Commercial 6%, Industrial 24 %, Agriculture 12 %, Bulk supply 14 % .The industrial sector consumes about 38% of the nation’s over all commercial energy and most of this is concentrated in a few hundred industrial plants. In spite of having all these resources, We still are not cautious in using them with care and efficiency at national and individual levels. Although the National Energy Conservation Policy, prepared by ENERCON through an extensive consultative process involving all stakeholders, is a contribution to the national effort to steer the country out of a difficult energy supply situation by promoting efficient use of energy resources. Conservation of energy resources covers a very wide spectrum, with a large number of stakeholders in the public as well as private sector. PEPCO is also working extensively on energy conservation through multifaceted policies. The responsibility for implementing the policy lies collectively on these stakeholders and together we can rise to meet the energy challenge. And now the recent establishment of the Cabinet Committee on Energy headed by the Prime Minister will provide the hitherto missing coordination and decision-making forum at the highest level. The National Energy Conservation Policy has four strategic goals. Sustainable Development, Improve Economic Productivity and Poverty Alleviation, GHG Mitigation , Climate Control and Gender Mainstreaming. It focuses on Energy conservation, as a least cost supply option, will help in meeting the requirements of rising levels of energy consumption without putting corresponding additional burden on the environmental resources. Cost effective energy efficiency measures will improve Pakistan’s economic performance and the value the economy derives from the use of energy resources. Energy efficiency and conservation measures can result in profitable business opportunities and will become a means for poverty alleviation. PEPCO has the credo of ‘A unit of energy conserved is a unit of energy produced, which in turn creates a room for energy supplies for rural areas too. We must cooperate with government ministries and departments for making the energy conservation campaign successful and play our part in efficient use of energy resources. Unnecessary burning of gas, coal and exaggerated use of electricity in pompous illuminations and excessive use of home appliances, particularly the air conditioners should be avoided. Similarly extravagant utilization of automobiles which has caused increase in POL consumption, must be controlled . Inefficient gas consumption domestically as well as industrially is casting a daunting effect on our gas reserves by making them diminish, rapidly. Every one must exercise strict restraint while using the gas for various purposes. Along with these efforts ,Designing and Constructing energy efficient buildings & homes and retrofitting the existing buildings can significantly conserve energy and reduce energy bills. The modern days buildings require more arrangements for cooling because of less ventilation provisions and excessive use of glass. Our collaborated efforts can facilitate us in ensuring optimal utilization of God gifted energy resource for a longer duration .It will not only enable us to thrive economically but also can provide us sustainable social development. We must make it a habit to be very conservative and careful in using energy resources, which requires a change in life styles and a paradigm shift, which can cause maximum out put with minimum input of resources and also help us in managing the environment too.